About social learning

From Me Pare Whanau
Jump to: navigation, search

source

source 01 [wikipedia – social learning]

source 02 [wikipedia:adragogy]

social learning overview

… social learning is learning that takes place at a wider scale than individual or group learning, up to a societal scale, through social interaction between peers …

… it may or may not lead to a change in attitudes and behaviour …

… more specifically, to be considered social learning, a process must: …

  1. demonstrate that a change in understanding has taken place in the individuals involved …
  2. demonstrate that this change goes beyond the individual and becomes situated within wider social units or communities of practice; and …
  3. occur through social interactions and processes between actors within a social network …

… reference reed et al., 2010 …

a history of social learning

… early work conceptualized social learning as individual learning that takes place in a social context …

… and is hence influenced by social norms, eg by imitating role models (bandura 1977) …

… however, this conceptualization is not particularly useful, because most learning takes place in some social context …

… [recent] literature conceptualizes, often implicitly, social learning as a process of social change in which people learn from each other in ways that can benefit wider social-ecological system …

… originating from concepts of organizational learning (argyris and schön 1978, 1996, senge 1990, wenger, 1998) …

… this second school of thought is informed by social theories of learning …

… which define learning as active social participation in the practices of a community (lave and wenger 1991, wenger 1998) …

… and emphasize the dynamic interaction between people and the environment in the construction of meaning and identity (muro and jeffrey 2008) …

… however, much of this literature ignores conceptual advancements in the education and psychology literature (fazey et al. 2007) …

… and there remains little consensus or clarity over the conceptual basis of social learning (wals and van der leij 2007) …

… recently, one of the first courses in social learning is being offered at columbia university teachers college as peer to peer learning and sharing are becoming accepted as imperative in the learning process …

towards a clearer understanding of social learning

… researchers have defined social learning in multiple, overlapping ways …

… and confused social learning with the conditions and methods necessary to facilitate social learning or its potential outcomes …

… it is important to distinguish social learning as a concept from the conditions or methods that may facilitate social learning, eg stakeholder participation …

… and the potential outcomes of social learning processes, eg proenvironmental behavior …

… building on this discussion, if learning is to be considered “social learning,” then it must …

… 1 demonstrate that a change in understanding has taken place in the individuals involved …

… this may be at a surface level, eg, via recall of new information, or deeper levels, eg, demonstrated by change in attitudes, world views or epistemological beliefs …

… 2 go beyond the individual to become situated within wider social units or communities of practice within society; and …

… 3 occur through social interactions and processes between actors within a social network …

… either through direct interaction, eg, conversation, or through other media, e.g., mass media, telephone, or web 2.0 applications …

… as such, social learning may be defined as a change in understanding that goes beyond the individual to become situated within wider social units or communities of practice through social interactions between actors within social networks …

how long does social learning take?

… the issue of how long social learning takes is important for the design of learning initiatives and policy interventions …

… the process of going beyond individual learning to a broader understanding situated in a community of practice can take some time to develop …

… a longitudinal study looking at an environmental group concerned about land degradation found that social learning was documented after approximately 1 year …

… but was initially restricted to an increased understanding of the problem without improved knowledge to address it …

… further knowledge necessary to address the problem in focus emerged during the third year of the program …

… this suggests that learning initiatives could take around 3 years to develop sufficient new knowledge embedded in a community of practice to address complex problems …

new developments in social learning

… with the growing use of social media, social learning is also more and more interpreted as learning with social media …

… social learning through open platforms like facebook or …

… closed platforms like corporate social learning network is growing up rapidly …

… social media can be used by employees to contribute, store, discover, search, learn and relearn, action, and review knowledge and skills …

… making hidden information and knowledge explicit …

… from an employee's or learner's point - this is also considered as "personal knowledge management" or "smart working" …

… eg using blogs to reflect their work …

… or using user generated content via platforms like wikipedia or youtube to learn on demand, e.g. when they have a question or problem …

… from an organizational point of view, social learning can be added as an element to formal learning like courses or curricula - to add discussions, sharing of experiences and lessons learned …

… also social learning can be driven more stand-alone - e.g. to create communities of practice for similar groups like new employees (called onboarding), team or project team members or other similar groups …

… the goal for the organizations is to make learning more effective …

… the new connotation of social learning is also pushed by software companies who want to sell social learning tools (like sap ag or microsoft) …

… however practitioners agree that social learning is more than social media …

andragogy overview

… andragogy are teaching strategies developed for adult learners …

… knowles, holton, and swanson (2005) described andragogy as the "art and science to teaching adults to learn …

… it is often interpreted as the process of engaging adult learners with the structure of learning experience …

… the term ‘andragogy’ has been used in different times and countries with various connotations …

… nowadays there exist mainly three understandings …

… 1 in many countries there is a growing conception of ‘andragogy’ as the scholarly approach to the learning of adults …

… in this connotation andragogy is the science of understanding (= theory) and supporting (= practice) lifelong and lifewide education of adults …

… 2 especially in the usa, ‘andragogy’ in the tradition of malcolm knowles, labels a specific theoretical and practical approach, based on a humanistic conception of self-directed and autonomous learners and teachers as facilitators of learning …

… 3 widely, an unclear use of andragogy can be found, with its meaning changing (even in the same publication) from ‘adult education practice’ or ‘desirable values’ or ‘specific teaching methods,’ …

… to ‘reflections’ or ‘academic discipline’ and/or ‘opposite to childish pedagogy’, claiming to be ‘something better’ than just ‘adult education’ …

… originally used by alexander kapp (a german educator) in 1833, andragogy was developed into a theory of adult education by eugen rosenstock-huessy and was popularized in the us by american educator malcolm knowles …

… knowles asserted that andragogy (greek: "man-leading") should be distinguished from the more commonly used pedagogy (greek: "child-leading") …

… knowles' theory can be stated with six assumptions related to motivation of adult learning …

… 1 adults need to know the reason for learning something (need to know) …

… 2 experience (including error) provides the basis for learning activities (foundation) …

… 3 adults need to be responsible for their decisions on education; involvement in the planning and evaluation of their instruction (self-concept) …

… 4 adults are most interested in learning subjects having immediate relevance to their work and/or personal lives (readiness) …

… 5 adult learning is problem-centered rather than content-oriented (orientation) …

… 6 adults respond better to internal versus external motivators (motivation) …

… the term has been used by some to allow discussion of contrast between self-directed and 'taught' education …

… knowles collected ideas about a theory of adult education from the end of wwii until he was introduced to the term "andragogy." …

… in 1966, knowles met dusan savicevic in boston …

… savicevic shared the term andragogy with knowles, and explained how it was used in the european context …

etymology and generalization

… which means “adult" and to "lead"; so it literally means, "to lead the man.” …

… in andragogical instruction, the learner develops in depth knowledge of self and others through guided interaction that evokes the affective component of learning to motivate fulfillment of maximum potential …

… learning strategies focus on mature learning with a mentor that encourages, enables the mature learner by providing access to appropriate resources …

… and refrains from obtrusive interference …

… this is consistent with the humanism of maslow, 1954; rogers 1951, 1993; glasser, 1984, 1996; and motschnig-pitrik, 2005 …

… this learning is a needs based, adaptive, holistic learning where personal interpretation, evaluation, decision making, reasoning, and strategy are developed to give expertise …

… the learning is a self-directed acquisition, development, and integration of knowledge …

… interpersonal/intrapersonal intelligences are refined so that the learner becomes self-actualized with intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment …

… the learner adapts prior knowledge to new experience with others and the environment to develop knowledge of synergy …

… the level of learning is high order learning where strategy, expertise, procedural knowledge, reasoning, and analytical abilities are developed …